When glucose levels rise in blood, a person is said to suffer from the disease called diabetes or diabetes mellitus. Diabetes has now become a very common disease. To keep pace with the fast flowing life, people have adopted sedentary lifestyle, inactivity, faulty food habits, and this has caused almost every house to have a patient of diabetes. Normally the carbohydrates we consume take the form of glucose. The hormone, insulin secreted by our pancreas breaks down the glucose, makes it absorbable by the body cells, and in the process converts it in to energy. When pancreas produces insufficient insulin or when body cells become insulin resistant, glucose collects in blood, leading to diabetes. Diabetes can be kept under check, and the patient can lead a hale and hearty life. But if not timely diagnosed, it can be fatal causing serious damage to kidneys, liver, heart, eyes and even the nervous system.
Types of Diabetes
Diabetes is mainly of three types – Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational. Type 1 diabetes is caused due to insufficient insulin production. The patient in this case, has to take insulin injections. Type 2 is caused due to cells growing non-reactive to insulin and Gestational diabetes occurs in women during pregnancy.
Symptoms of Diabetes
1. Increased urination
2. Increased hunger
3. Increased thirst
4. Loss of weight
7. Nausea and vomiting
8. Blurred vision
9. Passing of acidic urine with a sweet smell
10. Poor wound healing
11. Intense itching around genitals
Normal Blood Glucose Readings, Range and Chart
Normal blood glucose readings indicate the amount of glucose that should normally be present in the blood stream. Normal blood glucose should range between 70 to 150 mg. Levels are lower in the morning, when the body is on fast and rise after the meals. Actually glucose level readings depend on factors like the amount of food consumed, whether one has done exercise or not before the blood test and so on. If glucose levels are consistently above 150 mg, the condition is known as hyperglycemia or high blood sugar, and the person is said to be diabetic. If the readings are below 70 mg, the condition is known as hypoglycemia. Normal blood glucose readings and range depend on how the blood glucose has been tested. Testing of blood glucose can be done through the following ways.
1. Fasting blood glucose test-This test is done when the body is on fast for more than eight hours. The time span between the previous day’s dinner and the next day’s breakfast makes up for the body’s fasting period, and it is suitable to take the fasting blood glucose readings at that time. Normal fasting blood glucose level should be less than 110 mg/dl. If it is above 126 mg/dl, the person is said to be diabetic.
2. Random blood glucose test-This test is done any time. The normal count should be in the mid 100’s. If the reading is 200 or above, the person is diagnosed with diabetes.
3. Oral glucose tolerance test-In case of this test, the patient is made to drink a sugar water solution after fasting overnight. Glucose levels in blood are then tested over several hours. In a non-diabetic person, the glucose levels rise after drinking the solution and then fall quickly. In a diabetic, glucose levels will at once soar higher than normal, and will not drop as quickly. A normal glucose reading should be 140 mg/dl two hours after drinking the solution. If the reading is 200 mg/dl or more, the person is said to be diabetic.
1. Minimum fasting value – 70 mg/dl.
2. Maximum fasting value – 100 mg/dl.
3. Post-Prandial – less than 140 mg/dl.
1. Minimum fasting value – 101 mg/dl.
2. Maximum fasting value – 126 mg/dl.
3. Post-Prandial – 140-200 mg/dl.
1. Minimum fasting value – more than 126 mg/dl.
2. Maximum fasting value – 126 mg/dl.
3. Post-Prandial – more than 200 mg/dl.